Edited by John C. All Rights Reserved This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher. Foreword Although the worlds total fresh water supply is abundant, some areas have water usage demands that are heavily out of balance with natural replenishment. Conservation and efcient reuse of this precious and versatile resource are mandatory if such areas are to achieve proper development. And, the need for water conservation does not limit itself only to arid regions.
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And, the need for water conservation does not limit itself only to arid regions. Recognition of the detrimental environmental impact of high temperature water discharge into an estuary, whose inhabitants are accustomed to more moderate temperature levels, makes one realize that the re-cooling and reuse of water, however abundant, conserves not just that important natural resource—it conserves nature as well. One helpful means to that end is the water cooling tower.
Those responsible for the specifications, purchasing and operation of plant, station, or building cooling systems must consider many aspects beyond the primary requirement of dissipating unwanted heat. The following text is devoted to identifying the primary and peripheral considerations and offering approaches refined by some eighty years of experience in the cooling tower industry.
The goal is to assure the implementation of water cooling systems which will satisfy all design and environmental requirements with sound engineering and responsible cost.
This manual is not intended to be all-encompassing and thoroughly definitive. The entire scope of cooling towers is too broad, and the technology far too advanced, to permit complete coverage in a single publication.
Separate brochures by SPX Cooling Technologies, either existing or planned, cover individual topics in depth. The intent herein is to provide a level of basic knowledge which will facilitate dialogue, and understanding, between user and manufacturer.
Types of Towers The Psychrometrics of Evaporation Factors Affecting Cooling Tower Performance Materials of Construction Maintaining Water Quality Operation in Freezing Weather Cold Water Basin Tower Framework Water Distribution System Fan Deck Fan Cylinders Mechanical Equipment Supports Fill heat transfer surface Drift Eliminators Access and Safety Considerations Speed Reducers Drive Shafts Safety Considerations Motor Controls Wiring System Design Cycling of Motors Water Conservation Visual Impact and Plume Control Adiabatic Air Precooling Energy Reduction Energy Management and Temperature Control Noise Control Drift Reduction Abnormal Operating Conditions Vibration Isolation Free Cooling Helper Towers Extended Oil Fill and Gauge Lines Mechanical Equipment Removal Devices Prevention of Basin Freezing Filtering Systems Fan Brakes and Backstops Air Inlet Screens Distribution Basin Covers Vibration Limit Switch Fire Protection, Prevention and Control Tower Preparation for Test Instrumentation for Test Operating Conditions During Test Conducting the Test Evaluation of Test Data Covering Specification Tower Orientation and Site Services Economic Evaluation Parameters Contractual Information Comparing Capability of Proposed Towers Cleaning and Biological Control Primeval, perspiring man- Although this heat is usually transferred to a cool, kind depended upon natural breezes to accelerate flowing volume of water, final rejection is always to this evaporation process, and was grateful when the atmosphere and, invariably, is accomplished by they came.
At some point in that distant past, how- some form of heat exchanger. The natural process of evaporation makes them Figure 1 to revel in a mechanically-produced flow very effective heat transfer mediums, although of air made finite development of the cooling tower somewhat inefficient due to their limited surface practicable.
Figure 1 — The principle of cooling by evaporation. Not all types are suitable for application to every heat load configuration. Understanding the various types, along with their advantages and limitations, can be of vital impor- tance to the prospective user, and is essential to the full understanding of this text. The small atmospheric tower depicted in Figure 2 derives its airflow from the natural induction aspiration provided by a pressure-spray type water distribution system.
Although relatively in- expensive, they are usually applied only in very small sizes, and are far more affected by adverse wind conditions than are other types. Their use on processes requiring accurate, dependable cold water temperatures is not recommended Figure 3a — Counterflow natural draft tower. Figure 2 — Atmospheric spray tower. Conversely, the atmospheric type known as Figure 3b — Crossflow natural draft tower.
Air flow through this perbolic towers. Typically, these cal draft towers more applicable towers tend to be quite large , gpm and 2. Their name, of course, derives from the of air through the tower.
Thus their thermal per- geometric shape of the shell. Section V-F mechanical equipment maintenance costs to Mechanical draft towers are categorized as recoup the differential cost of the tower. The either forced draft Fig. Furthermore, located in the cold entering ambient air stream, forced draft fans can become subject to severe icing with resultant imbalance when moving air laden with either natural or recirculated moisture.
Usually, forced draft towers are equipped with centrifugal blower type fans which, although requiring considerably more horsepower than propeller type fans, have the advantage of being able to operate against the high static pressures associated with ductwork.
Therefore, they can either be installed indoors space permitting , or within a specially designed enclosure that pro- vides significant separation between intake and discharge locations to minimize recirculation.
Induced draft towers have an air discharge velocity of from 3 to 4 times higher than their air entrance velocity, with the entrance velocity ap- proximating that of a 5 mph wind. Therefore, there is little or no tendency for a reduced pressure Figure 4 — Forced draft, counterflow, blower fan tower.
The potential for recirculation on an induced draft tower is not self-initiating and, tower, and the air is blown through; or induced therefore, can be more easily quantified purely on draft Fig. Location air stream draws air through the tower. Widespread ac- ties. Accordingly, they are extremely susceptible ceptance of induced draft towers is evidenced to recirculation Sect. I-E c and are therefore by their existence on installations as small as 15 gpm and as large as , gpm.
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