MACKINDER THEORY OF HEARTLAND PDF

Mackinder postulated the following, which became known as the Heartland Theory:. The "heartland" he also referred to as the "pivot area" and as the core of Eurasia , and he considered all of Europe and Asia as the World Island. In the age of modern warfare, Mackinder's theory is widely considered outdated. Nations with large navies were at an advantage over those that could not successfully navigate the oceans, Mackinder suggested. Of course, in the modern era, the use of aircraft has greatly changed the ability to control territory and provide defensive capabilities. But the Crimean War came close.

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Mackinder postulated the following, which became known as the Heartland Theory:. The "heartland" he also referred to as the "pivot area" and as the core of Eurasia , and he considered all of Europe and Asia as the World Island. In the age of modern warfare, Mackinder's theory is widely considered outdated. Nations with large navies were at an advantage over those that could not successfully navigate the oceans, Mackinder suggested. Of course, in the modern era, the use of aircraft has greatly changed the ability to control territory and provide defensive capabilities.

But the Crimean War came close. But it lost to an allegiance of the French and British, which had more effective naval forces. Some historians have conjectured that Mackinder's theory may have influenced Nazi Germany's drive to conquer Europe although there are many who think the eastward push of Germany that led to World War II just happened to coincide with Mackinder's heartland theory.

The concept of geopolitics or geopolitik, as Germans called it was proposed by Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellen in Geopolitical theory was used to justify a country's attempts to expand based on its own needs.

In the s, German geographer Karl Haushofer used the geopolitik theory to support Germany's invasion of its neighbors, which it viewed as "expansion. Of course, Adolf Hitler held the much worse view that Germany had some kind of "moral right" to acquire the lands of what he termed "lesser" races. Share Flipboard Email. Matt Rosenberg. Geography Expert. Updated September 10, ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our.

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What Is Mackinder's Heartland Theory?

Mackinder in the early 20th century as the key to world domination in an era of declining importance for traditionally invincible sea power. The pivot area was vulnerable to land attack only by way of the plains of eastern Europe. Thus, control of eastern Europe would ensure domination of the pivot area and ultimately world domination. In Mackinder renamed the concept the heartland. Following World War II , Mackinder became even more convinced of the validity of the heartland concept and warned of possible world domination by the Soviet Union if it were able to gain control of all of Germany and eastern Europe, much of which it did in fact gain. Mackinder, however, writing some decades before the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads, believed that air power did not diminish the significance of the heartland.

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What is the Heartland Theory?

Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the ultimate victory going to the continental power. This assertion was also supported by Kjellen. According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world. Mackinder called it the Heartland total area being 11 million square kilometres. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers.

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Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic. Mackinder's Heartland was the area then ruled by the Russian Empire and after that by the Soviet Union , minus the Kamchatka Peninsula region, which is located in the easternmost part of Russia, near the Aleutian Islands and Kurile islands. The Heartland's size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island. The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries.

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