Please contact customerservices lexology. If you can't read this PDF, you can view its text here. Go back to the PDF. This document, on the one hand, analyses the status quaestionis regarding the registration of a licence as a precondition for the licensee of the industrial property right to bring legal proceedings in the protection of the licensed right and, on the other, assesses the possible impact of the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union in connection with EU legal titles on the case law of the Spanish Supreme Court in connection with national legal titles. Legislative regulation of the different national and EU industrial property rights provides for the possibility that the licensee of one of these rights, on meeting certain conditions, may bring actions for infringement of the licensed right.
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Metrics details. This species was isolated from a chironomid Diptera; Chironomidae egg mass, sampled from a waste stabilization pond in northern Israel. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. It encodes 2, proteins and 68 RNA genes. The genus Brachymonas was formed by Hiraishi et al.
They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages egg, larva, pupa and adult that emerges into the air [ 3 ]. Each egg mass contains hundreds of eggs. Chironomid egg masses were found to harbor Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas spp.
Strain AIMA4 T was isolated in the course of a study that investigated endogenous bacterial communities that inhabit chironomid egg masses [ 2 , 13 , 14 ]. The species epithet chironomi was derived from the non-biting midge insect Chironomus Diptera; Chironomidae , from where this species was isolated. A taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach placed B. Phylogenetic tree highlighting the position of Brachymonas chironomi relative to the type strains of the other species within the family Comamonadaceae.
Strain AIMA4 T is aerobic, chemoorganotrophic and does not produce acid from carbohydrates including glucose [ 2 ]. The following enzymatic activities were observed in strain AIMA4 T : catalase and oxidase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, esterase C4 , esterase lipase C8 , leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, trypsin and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase. Scanning electron micrograph of B.
The main isoprenoid quinone is Q Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine occur as polar lipids [ 2 ]. This organism was selected for sequencing on the basis of its phylogenetic position [ 17 - 19 ]. Sequencing of B.
The genome project is deposited in the Genomes OnLine Database [ 22 ] and the permanent draft genome sequence is deposited in GenBank. DNA was isolated from 0. The draft genome of B. An Illumina standard shotgun library was constructed and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform which generated 14,, reads totaling 2, All general aspects of library construction and sequencing performed at the JGI can be found at the institute website [ 27 ].
All raw Illumina sequence data was passed through DUK, a filtering program developed at JGI, which removes known Illumina sequencing and library preparation artifacts [ 28 ]. Following steps were then performed for assembly: 1 filtered Illumina reads were assembled using Velvet [ 29 ], 2 1—3 Kbp simulated paired end reads were created from Velvet Contigs using wgsim [ 30 ], 3 Illumina reads were assembled with simulated read pairs using Allpaths—LG [ 31 ].
The final draft assembly contained 36 contigs in 36 scaffolds. The total size of the genome is 2. These data sources were combined to assert a product description for each predicted protein.
Of the 2, genes predicted, 2, were protein-coding genes, and 68 RNAs. The majority of the protein-coding genes Using pyrosequencing method, we have recently shown that the prevalence of Brachymonas in the endogenous bacterial communities of chironomid egg masses and larva was 0. Chironomid tolerance towards pollution is well documented [ 38 ].
Although B. Nevertheless, its genome reveals the potential of this species to protect its host in polluted environments. Genes encoding arsenate detoxification are present in B. These genes include an arsenical resistance gene cluster with candidates for transcriptional regulator, ArsR; arsenical resistance operon trans-acting repressor, ArsD; arsenite efflux ATP-binding protein, ArsA and a hypothetical arsenic resistance protein ACR3 family.
A gene for arsenate reductase ArsC family is present in a different operon. Moreover, two genes encoding ABC-type transport system involved in resistance to organic solvents, auxiliary and periplasmic components are also present. The genome of B. Another feature that is found in the genome of B. Tolerance of 2. In respect to the ampicillin beta-lactam antibiotic resistance, the genome encodes one beta-lactamase class B and a negative regulator of beta-lactamase expression.
Three genes encoding two component transcriptional regulators LuxR family , can be found in the genome of strain AIMA4 T and demonstrate quorum sensing skills. In the current study, we characterized the genome of B.
Members of this family are known for their ability to cope with harsh environmental condition such as high concentration of toxic metals and other pollutants like aromatic compounds or polymers [e. Likewise, the genome of strain AIMA4 T reveals the potential of this species to cope with toxic metals.
These demonstrate that B. Brachymonas denitrificans gen. J Gen Appl Microbiol. Brachymonas chironomi sp. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Culturable and VBNC Vibrio cholerae : interactions with chironomid egg masses and their bacterial population. Microb Ecol. Broza M, Halpern M. Chironomid egg masses and Vibrio cholerae. Chironomid egg masses as a natural reservoir of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O in freshwater habitats.
Dependent population dynamics between chironomids non-biting midges and Vibrio cholerae. Vibrio cholerae and Aeromonas ; do they share a mutual host? ISME J. Re-identification of Aeromonas isolates from chironomid egg masses as the potential pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas aquariorum. Environ Microbiol Rep. Chironomid egg masses harbour the clinical species Aeromonas taiwanensis and Aeromonas sanarellii. Halpern M.
Chironomids and Vibrio cholerae. In: Rosenberg E, Gophna U, editors. Beneficial Microorganisms in Multicultural Life Forms. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; Google Scholar. Appl Environ Microbiol. Novel insights into hemagglutinin protease HAP gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae.
Mol Ecol. Raats D, Halpern M. Oceanobacillus chironomi sp. Rheinheimera chironomi sp. Polyphasic taxonomic study of the emended genus Comamonas : relationship to Aquuspirillum aquaticurn , E. Falsen group 10, and other clinical isolates. Int J Syst Bacteriol. Permanent draft genome sequence of Comamonas testosteroni KF Stand Genomic Sci. A phylogeny-driven Genomic Encyclopaedia of Bacteria and Archaea.
En route to a genome - based classification of Archaea and Bacteria? Syst Appl Microbiol. Phylogeny-driven target selection for large-scale genome-sequencing and other projects. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea : sequencing a myriad of type strains. PLoS Biol. Nucleic Acids Res. The fast changing landscape of sequencing technologies and their impact on microbial genome assemblies and annotation. PLoS One. The DNA bank network: the start from a German initiative.
Biopreserv Biobank. Bennett S. Solexa Ltd. DUK, unpublished, Zerbino D, Birney E. Velvet: algorithms for de novo short read assembly using de Bruijn graphs.
Genome Res. Gnerre S, MacCallum I. High—quality draft assemblies of mammalian genomes from massively parallel sequence data.
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