LAS HIJAS DE LILITH ERIKA BORNAY PDF

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Methods: An iconographic analysis has been performed to identify and classify the different iconographies used to depict this myth a total of nine. After this first analysis, the study offers a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the inclusion of this myth in the advertising of the different commercial sectors. Results and conclusions: The myth of Lilith is used the most in the fragrance, audiovisual and fashion sectors.

Keywords Lilith; iconography; women; advertising; gender; mythology. Contents 1. Theoretical framework. Materials and methods. Iconographic analysis of the mythological figure of Lilith in advertising. Lilith in graphic advertising. Lilith in advertising products. The image of women is a cultural construction that has been forged over centuries, through the incorporation of different iconographies created from an androcentric point of view, and distributed and imposed through the power of images.

Such iconographies have been mostly perpetuated by the history of art and, currently, by the media. Current female myths are ancient symbolic representations, in which any modification of the symbol would involve the deconstruction and reprocessing of new female iconographies that represent current female identities.

The first necessary step to eradicate a cultural identity imposed on women through the standardisation of an iconography based on patriarchal myths is to reinterpret the images in question to identify the different myths that are represented and the treatments given to them in advertising.

The interpretation of the female myth of Lilith is developed from an androcentric perspective that has been transmitted from generation to generation over the centuries. Graphic design is a communication tool to represent cultural identity, and it combines art, design and persuasion Reina, Therefore, it is necessary to identify the cultural identify represented by the images and their capacity to silently manipulate, since the message that images transmit is not only visual but also intellectual.

They represent the cultural identity of a particular society that has been imposed on women, and have great power of manipulation and persuasion. We must not forget that one of the main features of images is their great power of suggestion in all cultures. Thus, based on the different female iconographies that appear in graphic and editorial design and, by extension, in advertising we could talk about female captivity Villarreal, For this reason, it is necessary to carry out a visual analysis that identifies the depiction of this myth in advertising and its meaning, in order to deconstruct ancient, as well as contemporary, patriarchal myths.

The main objective of this article is to show that the patriarchal myth of Lilith still persists as a selling technique in the advertising campaigns of various commercial sectors. For this reason, we have formulated the following specific objectives: to identify and analyse the iconography of the myth of Lilith in contemporary advertising, to classify the different iconographies in which Lilith can be identified, to quantify the advertising products that use the image of Lilith, and to analyse in which of these images Lilith is depicted as an erotic figure.

Although the topic of Lilith in literature has been extensively studied, the interrelationship between this mythological female character and the visual arts has been studied to a lesser degree, standing out the works of Bornay , Camps and Eetessam , which focus on the representation of the female myth in 19th century art. Zuriaga addresses the evolution of this female myth, while Lenaers analyses different myths focusing on the mirror as an iconographic attribute.

In the existing good-evil dichotomy, advertising has overexploited the image of women related to evil, unifying different iconographies in the archetype known as the Femme Fatale. This figure has been a protagonist not only in the visual arts, but also in the rest of the arts. The desire embodied in women, who are turned into objects of desire, something that has been repeatedly done by advertising and promotes the objectification and degradation of women.

This representation of women in advertising, a symbolic collection of the personification of evil, feeds on various iconographies that have survived from ancient times to this day. This collection includes the iconography of Lilith, without a doubt one of the most exploited images. The same author argues that the myth of the Femme Fatale represents a strong and dominant woman of great beauty, capable of turning men into weak victims of her perversions, and leading men to their doom, and to hell.

The woman is, then, the absolute protagonist of evil, of everything that is prohibited to good women , of what is considered sinful by the Church. Female iconography repeatedly uses symbolism associated with sexuality, lust, eroticism, sin, etc. The origin of this female iconography associated with evil was Lilith.

Lilith was unknown in early Christianism despite the fact that she had appeared in the literature of the early centuries of the Christian era.

More recently, however, Lilith fertilised the imaginary of the Jewish and Christian community with ideas about a she-demon who caused wet dreams in chaste young men and was responsible for the premature death of new-born children.

Lilith also appears in the Zohar Koltuv, , p. She also appears in the Talmud, the book of Jewish tradition. In the Zohar, Lilith was described as a Succubus. Wet dreams were cited as a visible sign of her presence, of a man's carnal union with Lilith. The origin of Lilith, dates back to the Assyrian-Babylonian culture. She is a creature identified as a she-demon, a seducer and man-eater, capable of attacking men while they sleep. But to make her an even more evil being, Lilith also attacked the women who had just given birth and their new-borns.

This last feature placed Lilith against the figure of motherhood and the image of good, which reinforces the aforementioned dichotomy. There are various literary references about Lilith. Lilith also appears in the Zohar as the she-demon and mother of demons, as a demon who kills children and seduces men, as the opposite of chastity: as promiscuity.

As a result, all children born of this sexual act were born epileptic, because they are possessed by spirits that come from the Other Side. And these are the naked spirits of the wicked who are called demons. These are hunted down and killed by Lilith. Who are the oppressed? They are the new-borns that disappear from this world. It is not the Angel of Death but Lilith who kills children, she begins to caress them and smile to them and then kills them. The literature defines Lilith as the first wife of Adam, converted into a demon, a sexual man-eater, and a killer of newborns.

Visually, this character can be represented with different iconographies, playing a prominent role within the visual arts and currently in advertising, where her iconography remains hidden behind the advertising deception of a new Eve , which aims to show an image of a more free, independent and liberal woman, but nonetheless uses old disguised iconographies that revive an ancient and androcentric image of women.

In the acculturation process of our society, graphic and editorial design, and by extension advertising, play a protagonist role in the creation of the public image of women as an advertising element. Based on an initial iconographic analysis, we selected 66 images that are related to the mythical creature called Lilith and were published in the early 21st century. In the first selection of images, Lilith was identified through various iconographic elements serpents, felines and elements related to the devil, like horns and wings, etc.

The choice of these images was the result of searching for the Lilith archetype in advertising in various internet search engines, mainly Google. After collecting the images through an iconographic method, a database was created in Access for the purposes of this study. The database contained the following fields: number in catalogue, name of the identified myth, commercial sector, company advertised, production year of the ad, website where the image was found, pre-iconographic analysis what can be seen , iconographic analysis what it means , technical data, related images if any , other comments, and identification.

The iconographic method enabled the reinterpretation of the images. The iconographic method was developed by different authors Panofsky, ; Gombrich, , etc. In the pre-iconographic level a first reading is carried out to describe what is contemplated; the iconographic level will enables the identification of the theme and its cultural tradition, and the iconological level examines the ideas that hide the images in a particular cultural context.

Once the database was created, the 66 images were catalogued. Three of them were dismissed: one because it was published before the year and the other two because they were part of a movie frame. Thus only 63 images were examined, individually, to identify the business sectors they belonged to, their chronology, technical data, icons, and their iconographic elements, which allowed us to identify the different iconographies of the mythological character known as Lilith.

This classification is based on previous identifications of the myth of Lilith in the history of art Bornay, ; Eetessam, ; etc. For example: "in some representations, Lilith appears as a winged female figure with long hair.

In others, the lower part of her naked body has the form of a serpent tail. In the Zohar and in different sources, Lilith is called the whore, the perverse one, the false one, and even the black one.

Based on the previous, we identified nine iconographies used to represent this ancient female myth. These different forms of representing the myth as described below:. The serpent woman. The history of art has depicted Lilith as a serpent woman, i. The emblematic animal par excellence of the woman is the serpent. The feline-like woman or the woman accompanied by a feline. Bornay also identifies Lilith with a lustful and feline sexuality.

Among the names associated to this mythological figure is tigress. The she-demon. The iconography Lilith as a winged demon comes from the Assyrian-Babylonian culture.

The mother of the serpent or the mother of demons. Legend has it that Lilith joined the Devil and gave birth to a race of devils, and so we identified in contemporary advertising those images depicting Lilith as the mother of devils, or those that included women giving birth to devils snakes. The woman as object of desire.

This includes the depiction of women as a prostitute or a whore, but not with a submissive attitude when it comes to lust. Bornay also defines Lilith as the whore, the perverse one, the false one, the black one. The vamp: "Around , men saw in the vampire the image closest to the fearsome New Woman , hungry for sex, power and money. The personification of death.

They are generally ugly and monstrous beings. After establishing these categories, however, some ads could be classified in more than one iconographic category. Bearing the previous in mind, after classifying the ads in the most adequate iconographic category, we selected three ads to exemplify the survival of the myth of Lilith in advertising, more specifically in perfume advertising, which is the sector that perpetuates the myth the most.

The first ad has been chosen to present an apparently very clear iconography, with iconographic elements that are well known in Western culture; the second was chosen because it uses advertising as a subliminal element that allows us to carry out a complete iconographic reading; and the third was chosen because it is one of the most criticised ads as it was deemed to be too sexual and degrading for women by the Advertising Standards Agency ASA.

After the iconographic analysis was carried out, we considered it was necessary to establish which business sectors used the myth of Lilith in their advertising and how they represented it, in order to observe and compare the survival of the myth in contemporary advertising. The application of these qualitative categories allowed us to produce graphics that show clearly the persistence of the myth of Lilith in contemporary advertising and the different iconographies it represents.

In some cases, more than one iconographic variable appear in the same image. Iconographic analysis of the mythological figure of Lilith in advertising 4.

Lilith in graphic advertisin g. Without a doubt, Lilith, disguised in the iconography of the Femme Fatale , is the absolute protagonist of advertising, especially in sectors like the perfume industry, which uses this iconography the most due to its great sensual and sexual nature. To identify this myth in the ads it is necessary to identify the different iconographic references contained in the image. This first example includes different iconographic attributes like the serpent, the forbidden fruits, the apple-shaped perfume bottled, the female body moving like a snake, and the snakeskin-like dress.

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