It is highly competitive and can spread quickly, often being the dominant species in a field. It is causing considerable economic impact in cropping systems, greenhouses, gardens and nurseries Madsen and Wersal, The family Asteraceae is one of the most diverse groups among flowering plants, including genera and about 23, species Stevens, The anthers in this family are usually fused and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved. The genus Galinsoga includes approximately 14 species native to the New World Pruski,
|Published (Last):||26 June 2008|
|PDF File Size:||18.78 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||1.56 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
It is highly competitive and can spread quickly, often being the dominant species in a field. It is causing considerable economic impact in cropping systems, greenhouses, gardens and nurseries Madsen and Wersal, The family Asteraceae is one of the most diverse groups among flowering plants, including genera and about 23, species Stevens, The anthers in this family are usually fused and form a tube through which the style extends before the two stigmatic lobes separate and become recurved.
The genus Galinsoga includes approximately 14 species native to the New World Pruski, This genus is closely related to genera Sabazia Mexico and South America and Alloispermum South America , and some botanists believe that all these genera might best be treated as a single large Galinsoga genus Canne, , Peduncles 5—20 mm. Involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 3—6 mm diameter.
Ray florets 4 or 5 to 8 ; corollas usually white, sometimes pink, laminae 0. Disk florets 15— Ray achenes 1. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
In Europe, G. In Germany, G. In the Baltic countries, G. In the Nordic countries the first reports of G. In Russia, G. After , this species has expanded to Ukraine, Belarus and to the north-western and central districts of Russia where it was registered in the s.
In it was recorded in Siberia Schultz, ; Kabuce and Priede, For most of the European countries where G. In the Caribbean, G. The risk of introduction of G. It is a cosmopolitan weed in gardens, agricultural and waste areas and its seeds can be easily dispersed by wind and as a contaminant in soil, crop seeds, machinery, and adhered to animal fur and human clothes Kagima ; Vibrans, ; Kabuce and Priede, ; Madsen and Wersal, Consequently, the species has the potential to spread much further and colonize more territories than it has to date.
It grows in gardens, greenhouses, agricultural land, roadsides, railways, open fields, and other disturbed areas, essentially in association with any form of human development. It also has been found in natural riparian habitats, mountain slopes, margins in mixed coniferous and deciduous woodlands, and pine-oak forests Wagner et al. It is also a common weed in gardens, greenhouses, and nurseries Damalas, ; Vibrans, ; Kabuce and Priede, ; Madsen and Wersal, The chromosome number reported for G.
However, it is a tetraploid species and can hybridize with G. Flower anthesis is diurnal and flowers can be cross-pollinated by insects, otherwise they are self-fertile. Both the disk and ray florets are fertile, producing oblanceoloid achenes. At the apex of each achene, there is a pappus of several membranous scales which spread outward as the achenes mature and assist in their distribution by wind and water Kabuce and Priede, , Hilty, An 8- to 9-week-old plant can produce flower heads and up to seeds Kagima, Seeds are able to germinate immediately upon contact with warm moist soil; therefore plants can achieve generations each growing season Reinhardt et al.
In Mexico within its native distribution range , G. It is sensitive to frost, and its seeds require high temperatures to germinate Reinhardt et al. Seeds are enclosed in an achene and are small 1. Seeds may also be secondarily dispersed as a contaminant in imported seeds and seedlings of ornamental plants, soil, grains, crop seeds, agricultural machinery or adhered to cattle, animal fur and human clothes Reinhardt et al.
Seeds are viable for only a few years under field conditions Huffman, The species is a strong competitor in weedy plant communities and it is a permanent problem for many farmers including commercial greenhouses. It has the potential to outcompete other plants in taking up nutrients and it may also shade out cultivated and native plants Reinhardt et al.
In Africa and Southeast Asia, the young stems and leaves of G. In America, dried leaves are used as an essential flavouring for certain dishes Kagima ; Kabuce and Priede, In Mexico, it is used as animal forage Vibrans, These two species can be distinguished by the following taxonomic characters Pruski, :. Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Infestations of G. When this species grows as a weed with vegetables and intercrops, herbicide use has to be limited and will depend upon the crop planted Madsen and Wersal, No biological control methods are currently recommended.
Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, pp. Invasive alien plants: an ecological appraisal for the Indian subcontinent [ed. Preliminary check-list of invasive alien plant species IAS in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 17 2 Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. Canne JM, A revision of the genus Galinsoga Compositae: Heliantheae.
Rhodora, 79 Circumscription and generic relationships of Galinsoga Compositae: Heliantheae. Charles Darwin Foundation, Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Damalas CA, Distribution, biology, and agricultural importance of Galinsoga parviflora Asteraceae. Weed Biology and Management, 8 3 Flora of China Editorial Committee, Flora of China. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, Flora of North America North of Mexico.
Cytogenetics of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Blake, and their natural hydrids Asteraceae. New Phytologist, Hilty J, Illinois Wildflowers. Huffman L, Problem Weed of the Month: Hairy Galinsoga. Kabuce N; Priede N, Kagima D, Bibliography and Biology of Galinsoga spp.
Roadside distribution patterns of invasive alien plants along an altitudinal gradient in Arunachal Himalaya, India. Mountain Research and Development, 30 3 Flora of the Baltic countries 3.
Tartu, Estonia. Datasheet: Galinsoga quadriradiata Cav. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Martin R; Pol C, Weeds of upland crops in Cambodia. Commonwealth of Australia, Mito T; Uesugi T, Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects.
Global Environmental Research, 8 2 Mondin CA, Reproductive characteristics of neophytes in the Czech Republic: traits of invasive and non-invasive species.
Weeds and Their Control: Hairy Galinsoga (Galinsoga ciliata)
Hairy galinsoga is an annual weed that is native to Mexico and South America but is now found on the east, mid-west, and west coast of the United States. It prefers a sunny site with rich, moist, slightly acidic soil and commonly appears in gardens and other cultivated areas. It can be especially troublesome in vegetable gardens where it can significantly reduce yields by robbing the vegetable plants of nutrients and moisture. Hairy galinsoga can also be found in waste areas, along roadsides, and in fields. Description: The common name, hairy galinsoga, is especially apt since both the leaves and stem have a dense covering of fine white hairs. In addition, the mature leaves are opposite, oval to triangular, and coarsely toothed.
Galinsoga ciliata : Quickweed is fast food. Quickweed does not look edible or gallant. In fact, it looks like a daisy that lost a fight. But it, and a close cousin, G.
Galinsoga’s Gallant Soldiers
Galinsoga quadriradiata Cav. Show All Show Tabs shaggy soldier. Mark A. August 13, Usage Requirements.