Embed Size px x x x x EpidemiologyA study of the distribution of disease frequency in human population and the determinants of that distributionEpidemiologists are not concerned with an individuals disease as clinicians do, but with a population distribution of the diseaseDistribution of disease by person, place, timeAssumption:Disease does not occur randomly Disease has identifiable causes which can be altered and therefore prevent disease from developing. Definition of EpidemiologyThe study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified population, and the application of this study to control of health problems. Dictionary of Epidemiology, ]Determinants: physical, biological, social, cultural, and behavioral factors that influence health. Health-related states or events: health status, diseases, death, other implications of disease such as disability, residual dysfunction, complication, recurrence, but also causes of death, behavior, provision and use of health services.
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Principles and Methods Prof. Definition and aims of epidemiology 2. Study designs used in epidemiology 3. Measures of Association 5. Bias 6. Confounding 7. Chance 8. Causal Inference Epidemiology A study of the distribution of disease frequency in human population and the determinants of that distribution Epidemiologists are not concerned with an individuals disease as clinicians do, but with a population distribution of the disease Distribution of disease by person, place, time Assumption: Disease does not occur randomly Disease has identifiable causes which can be altered and therefore prevent disease from developing Definition of Epidemiology The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified population, and the application of this study to control of health problems.
Dictionary of Epidemiology, ] Determinants: physical, biological, social, cultural, and behavioral factors that influence health. Health-related states or events: health status, diseases, death, other implications of disease such as disability, residual dysfunction, complication, recurrence, but also causes of death, behavior, provision and use of health services. Aims of Epidemiologic Research 1.
Describe the health status of a population 2. To assess the public health importance of diseases 3. To describe the natural history of disease, 4. Explain the etiology of disease 5. Predict the disease occurrence 6. To evaluate the prevention and control of disease 7.
Control the disease distribution Descriptive epidemiology Analytic epidemiology Applied epidemiology Descriptive and Analytical Epidemiology 1. Descriptive epidemiology Describes the occurrence of disease cross- sectional 2.
Analytic epidemiology: Observational cohort, case control, cross- sectional, ecologic study researcher observes association between exposure and disease, estimates and tests it Experimental RCT, quasi experiment researcher assigns intervention treatment , and estimates and tests its effect on health outcome Epidemiologic Study Designs Epidemiologic Study Designs Study Design and Its Strength of Evidence 1.
Systematic review, meta-analysis: secondary data analysis 2. Cohort: prospective or retrospective Quasi experiment 4. Case control: prospective or retrospective 5. Cross sectional 6. Value from 0 to 1. Value from 0 to infinity 3. Prevalence Point Prevalence : Number of new and old cases at a point of time Population Indicates burden of disease. Selection Bias and Information Bias?
True association present absent likely likely unlikely present absent unlikely False association BIAS Systematic errors in selection of study subjects, collecting or interpreting data such that there is deviation of results or inferences from the truth.
Selection bias: noncomparable procedure used to select study subjects leading to noncamparable study groups in their distribution of risk factors. Example: interviewer bias, recall bias Confounding 1. A mixing of effects between the exposure, the disease, and a third factor associated with both the exposure and the disease such that the effect of exposure on the disease is distorted by the association between the exposure and the third factor 2.
This third factor is so called confounding factor Cases of Down syndroms by birth order 0 20 40 60 80 1 2 3 4 5 Birth order Cases per live births Confounding Birth Order Downs syndrome Maternal age Observed but spurious association, presumed causation Unobserved association True association Apakah Ada Hubungan antara Urutan Kelahiran dan Risiko Sindroma Down? Strength of association 2. Specificity 3. Temporal sequence 4. Biologic gradient dose-response relationship 5.
Biologic plausibility 6. Consistency 7. Coherence 8. Experimental study 9. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Epidemiologi Prof Bhisma Murti. Uploaded by niaaseta. Document Information click to expand document information Description: epidemiologi. Date uploaded Jul 30, Did you find this document useful?
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Jurnal yang diterbitkan oleh Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jurnal ini menerbitkan penelitian asli dan tinjauan literatur yang mencakup isu-isu terapan, metodologis dan teoritis dalam epidemiologi. JEPH mendorong dan mendukung para peneliti dari negara-negara berpenghasilan rendah dan menengah, dan mereka yang dalam transisi, untuk mempublikasikan artikel mereka dalam JEPH. Jurnal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan epidemiologis, mencegah penyakit, memperpanjang usia, dan meningkatkan keseh Jurnal ini membawa masalah kesehatan publik menjadi perhatian pembuat keputusan kesehatan masyarakat.
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (JEPH)