This interpretation of line 12 sheds light also on Posidippus' involvement in the broader intellectual debates of his time and allows us to contextualize his epigram against the roughly coeval Epicurean reflection on the "right time. Since Goldhill 's seminal article devoted to exploring the cultural premises underlying the construction of a self-consciously distinctive rhetoric of viewing in Hellenistic poetry, 1 the pragmatics of reading Hellenistic ecphrastic epigrams have become the privileged topic of an increasingly productive strand of current scholarship. Who and from where is the sculptor? The artist fashioned me in such a shape for your sake, stranger, and he set me up in the portico as a lesson. Before tackling the long-standing question raised among art historians and literary critics by the expression l. According to a well-exploited pattern of Hellenistic epigrammatic poetry, 9 the whole poem is structured as a dialogue between the Lysippan statue and a fictionalized viewer whose primary concern is not so much to describe vividly the physical details of the sculpture he, or she, is looking at as to understand their embodied meanings and thus correctly interpret them.
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And if we should thus cast away the Truth and Favour of God, and sin against our Knowledge and Conscience, and so prove men of no Faith or Religion, under pretence of desiring a Unity in Faith and Religion, yet all would not do the thing intended, but we should certainly miss of these very ends which we seek, when we had sold the Truth and our Souls to obtain them. For there is nothing more certain, then that the Christian World will never unite in the Romane Vice-Christ, nor agree with them in their Corruptions, against plain Scripture, Tradition, Consent of the ancient Church, against the Reason and common sense of Mankind, This is not by any wise man to be expected.
Never did the universal Church, or one half of it center to this day in the Romane Soveraignty: And why should they hope for that which never yet was done? It was the Empire that raised him, and the Empire limited his own Usurpations. Saith their own Reinerius, or whoever else Cont. But when we knew the Brittains, we thought the Scots were better. But we have learnt by Daganus the Bishop in this forementioned Island, and by Columbanus the Abbot coming into France, that the Scots do nothing differ from the Brittains in their Conversation.
For Bishop Daganus coming to us, refused not only to eat with us, but even to eat in the same House where we did eat. Our most peaceable Bishop Hall was forct to write a [Roma irreconciliabilis. The Work that here I have undertaken, is, 1. To give you briefly those Grounds on which you must go, if you will keep your ground against a Papist. To detect their Frauds, and give to the younger sort of Ministers, sufficient Directions for the Confutation of all the Papists in the world.
To propound though in vain such terms of Peace as we can yield to. Enter not rashly upon Disputes with those that are Learned and of nimble tongues, if you be ignorant, or of weak capacities your selves.
Though I shall here shew you that Scripture, Church, Tradition, Reason and Sense are on your side, yet experience tels us how the words of Juglers have made millions of men deny belief to their eyes, their taste and other senses.
An ignorant man is soon silenced by a subtile wit; and many think that when they cannot answer, they must yield, though they deny both Sense and Reason by it.
If any of them secretly entice you, desire them to debate the case with some able, learned, experienced Minister in your hearing. You need the help of Pastors for your souls, as well as of Physicians for your Bodies, and Lawyers for your Estates: or else God would never have set them over you in his Church. Let them but come on equal terms, and you shall see what Truth can do.
In this way we will not avoid a Conference with any of them. But alas! Yet I would have the weakest to endeavour to understand the reasons of their Profession, and to be able to repell Deceivers: And to that end, I shall here give you first some Directions concerning the cause which you must defend.
And concerning this, Observe these things following 1. Understand what the Religion is that you must hold and maintain: It is the antient Christian Religion. Reformation brings us not a new Religion: but cleanseth the old from the dross of Popery, which by innovation they had brought in. A man that cannot confute a Papist, may yet be a Christian, and so hold fast the true Religion.
It followeth not that our Religion is questionable or unsafe, if some point in Controversie between them and us be questionable or hard. I answer; yes: it is about the Essentials of their Religion, but it is but for the preserving the Integrity of ours against the Consequences and additions of theirs. They have made them a New Religion which we call Popery and joined this to the Old Religion which we call Christianity.
The Papists do confess that the Creed, the Lords Prayer, the ten Commandments are true, yea that all the Scripture is the word of God, and certainly true: so that our Religion is granted us as past dispute: And therefore it is only the Papists Religion that is in question between us, and not ours. If you will make those lower Truths to be of the Essence of your Religion which are not, you will give the Papists the advantage which they desire. If the Papists call for a Rule, or Test of your Religion, and ask you where they may find it, assign them to the Holy Scriptures, and not to any Confessions of Churches, further then as they agree with that.
A point is not therefore with us an Article of Faith, because our Churches or a Synod put it into a Confession, but because it is in the Word of God. If they ask, Why then we do draw up Confessions of Faith? I answer, 1. To teach and help the people by gathering to their hands the most necessary points, and giving them sometimes an explication of them. And to let the Pastors and the world know what sence in the principal Points we are agreed in. Understand well what is the Catholick Church, that when the Papists ask you what Church you are of, or call to you to prove its antiquity or truth, you may give them a sound and Catholick answer.
The Catholick Church is the whole number of true Christians upon earth for we meddle not now with that part which is in Heaven. Run not into extreams: mix not any unsound principles with your Religion. For if you do, the Papists will cull out those, and by disgracing them, will seem to disgrace your Religion. Use not any unsound Arguments to defend the Truth. For if you do, the truth will suffer, and seem to be overthrown by the weakness of your Arguments.
Joyn not with those men that cast out any Ordinance of God, because the Papists have abused it. For these are they that please the Papists, and harden them in their Error, and offend the weak. They think they may call us Hereticks or Blasphemers by authority, when we call one another so. IF there be any godly honest men on earth besides Papists, then Popery is false and not of God.
But there be godly honest men on earth besides Papists: therefore Popery is false, and not of God. The Major is proved thus. It is an Article of the Popish faith, that there are no godly honest men on earth, besides Papists: therefore if there be any such, Popery is false, By godly honest men, I mean such as have true love to God, and so are in a state of salvation.
The Antecedent I prove thus. Their very definition of the Church doth make the Pope the Head, and confine the membership only to his subjects, making the Roman Catholick Church as they call it the whole. Leo the tenth, Abrog. For their infallibility is the ground of their faith, and they take it on their unerring authority.
But if the Pope and a General Council be to be believed, then no man but a subject of the Pope can be saved: no, though he fast and pray in sack-cloth and ashes day and night, and seem to fulfill the rest of the Law of God. And therefore we find that even in the great charitable work of reducing the Abassines, the Jesuite Gonzalus Rodericus in his speech to the Emperours mother laid so great a stress on this point, that when she professed her subjection to Christ, he told her, that [None are subject to Christ that are not subject to his Vicar,] [Negavi Christo subjici qui ejus vicario non subjicitur.
And Bellarmine saith de Eccl. And therefore Card. I come now to prove that your Pope, and Councill, and Faith are false, and that others besides you may be in a state of Charity and Salvation. For you confess your selves, that he that is in a state of Charity, is in a state of Salvation. The Consequence of the Major is plain by inward experience to every godly, honest man that knoweth himself.
And that I may know my own heart I can tell also by experience: For to know my own Knowledge and Will is an ordinary certain thing, if not by intuition it self.
And if a man cannot know whether he believe and love God or not, then no man can give thanks for it, nor make Profession of it: nay men cannot converse together, if they cannot know their own minds.
And then I have a moral conjectural certainty at least, that Popery is false; because I have at least such a certainty that I am not ungodly or unjustified. So that look what measure of knowledge or perswasion any Protestant hath that he is truly honest and justified, that measure of knowledge must he needs have if he understand himself that Popery is a deceit.
So that from hence you may gather these four conclusions; 1. That all that have any knowledge or perswasion that they are not ungodly unjustified persons themselves, and void of the true Love of God, are quite out of danger from turning Papists, if they understand but what Popery is; and if they do not, they cannot turn to it, but in part.
That never any honest godly man did turn Papist in the world; and this the Papists themselves will justifie: For they say by a Pope and general Council that no man can be saved but a Papist: and they generally hold, that all that have Charity and are justified, shall be saved if they so die.
So that if Popery be true, then no man had Charity or true Godliness before he was a Papist: and therefore never did one godly man or woman turn Papist. And therefore let them take the honour of their wicked seduced Ones. What glory is it to them that none ever turned to them but ungodly people? And it followeth that the Papists do not so much as desire or invite any godly man to turn to them.
And hence it follows that every one that turneth Papist, doth thereby confess that he was a wicked man before, and that he had not the least true love to God; that he was not justified, but a graceless wretch. In a word, all you that do but know or hope that you have any saving Grace, have an Argument here against Popery, which all the Jesuites in the world cannot confute.
For you know your own hearts better then they: And they have no way to turn you to them, but by perswading you that you are not what you are, and that you know not what you know.
But I proceed to a further proof of the Minor; A man may have a very strong Conjecture that many others that are no Papists have saving Grace; though he had no perswasion that he hath such Grace himself. And consequently he must have as strong a conjecture that Popery is false. What abundance of holy heavenly persons have we known of all ranks among us! As far as words, and groans, and tears, and the very drift of a mans life, and the expending of all that he hath, can help us to know another mans heart, so far do we know all this by others, that have lived among us.
Dodd, Mr. Paul Bayn, Mr. William Fenner, Mr. Arthur Hildersham, Mr. Robert Bolton, Mr. Greenham, Mr. Hooker, Dr. Sibbs, Dr. Preston, Dr. Stoughton, Mr. For it is essential to Popery to contradict all this.
And is this an easie task to one that hath the heart of a man in his brest? If you confess that you love not God your selves, dare you say that among the far greater part of the Christians of the world, there is not one man or woman that loves God? This you must say if you will be a Papist. And then on the other hand, Look on the words of Jesus Christ, and see what thanks he will give you for such a censure, Mat.
For one believeth that he may eat all things, another who is weak eateth herbs: Let not him that eateth despise him that eateth not; and let not him that eateth not judge him that eateth; for God hath received him. Who art thou that judgest another mans servant? For it is written, as I live saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God; so then every one of us shall give account of himself to God. Let us not therefore judge one another any more. So much for the second proof of the Minor.
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