National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Read more Singh, Bilveer. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video.
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National Library of Australia. Search the catalogue for collection items held by the National Library of Australia. Read more Singh, Bilveer. Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. To learn more about how to request items watch this short online video. You can view this on the NLA website.
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Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other First Nations people are advised that this catalogue contains names, recordings and images of deceased people and other content that may be culturally sensitive. Book , Online - Google Books. Singh, Bilveer, Includes bibliographical references p. In English. Angkatan Bersenjata. Indonesia -- Armed Forces. Indonesia -- Armed Forces -- Political activity. Indonesia -- Armed Forces -- Civic action.
Dwifungsi Abri, Demokrasi, Dan Pembaharuan Politik
National Technical Reports Library
Dwifungsi "dual function" was a doctrine implemented by Suharto 's military-dominated "New Order" government in Indonesia following the removal of President Sukarno. Dwifungsi was used to justify the military permanently increasing its influence in the Indonesian government, including reserved military-only seats in the parliament, and top positions in the nation's public service. After the transfer of sovereignty , the Army accepted civilian rule. As the weaknesses of political system became apparent, officers increasingly felt they had a responsibility to involve themselves in politics to "save the nation". When martial law was declared in , the Army expanded its role into political economic and administrative areas. Army chief-of-staff Nasution was keen to continue this after martial law lifted, and therefore developed the "Middle Way" concept in which Army would neither try to take power nor remain inactive.