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Introduction to DSP. Digital signal processing is used in a wide variety of applications. It is hard to get exact. Let us first look at the dictionary meanings of these words :. Operating by the use of discrete signals to represent data in the form of numbers. To perform operations on data according to programmed instructions. This leads -to a. Definition of DSP:.
DSP is defined as changing or analysing information which is measured as. System is associated with signals. System is nothing but physical device that performs an operation on a signal. Input S-1 : Signal processing. As shown in Fig. S-I, when we apply an input signal to the system, the system will process the signal and we get the expected response. This phenomenon is called as signal processing. S-2 shows that the basic elements of digital signal processing system.
Analog input. The different blocks of this system' are as follows :. Input signal :. It is the signal generated from some transducer or from some cOIm?
It may be. Generally input signal is analog in nature. It ;is. Anti-aliasing filter :. Anti aliasing filter is basically a low pass filter. It is used for the following purposes. Ca It removes the high frequency noise contain in input signal.
As the name indicates; it avoids aliasing effect. That means it is used to band limit the signal. Sample and hold circuit :. As the name indicates; this block takes the samples of input signal. It keeps the voltage level of input signal relatively constant which is the requirement of ADC.
Analog to digital converter ADC :. This is required because digital signal processor accepts the signal which is digital in nature. Digital signal processor :. It processes input signal digitally. In a simple languages processing of input 'signal making modifying the signal as per requirement. Digital to analog converter CAC :. The output of digital signal processor is digital in nature. But the required final output is analog in nature.
So to convert digital signal into analog signal DAC is used. Reconstruction filter :. Output signal of DAC is analog, that means it is a continuous signal. Such high frequency components are unwanted. To remove these components; reconstruction filter is used. But it may contain high. Digital systems' can be reprogrammed for other applica,tions where programmable DSP chips.
Moreover, digital systems can be ported to different hardware. IDSP-4 '. Repeatability :. Digital systems can be easily duplicated. Simplicity :. It is easy to built any digital system as compared to an analog one. Accuracy :. To design analog system; analog components like ,resistors, capacitors and inductors are used. The tolerance of these components reduce accuracy of analog 'system: 'Ybile in case of DSP ; much better accuracy is obtained. Remote processing :. Analog signals are difficult to store because of problems like noise and distortion.
While digital signal can be easily stored on storage media like magnetic tapes, disks etc. Thus compared to analog signals; digital signals can be easily transposed. So remote processing of digital signal can be done easily. Implementation of algorithms:. The mathematical processing algorithms can be easily implemented in case of digital signal processing.
But such algorithms are difficult to implement in case of analog signals. Easy up gradations :. Because of the use of software; digital signal processing systems can be easily upgraded compared to analog system. Compatibility :. In case of digital systems; generally all, applications needs standard hardware.
Thus operation of dsp system is mainly dependent on software. Hence universal compatibility is possible compared to analog systems. In many applications; the digital systems are comparatively cheaper than analog systems.
The digital signal processing systems have many advantages. Even though there are certain disadvantages as follows :. System complexity :. The digital signal processing system, makes use of converters. Similarly in many applications; the time required for this conversion is more. Bandwidth limitation :. But always there is a practical limitation in the speed 'of processors and ADC.
Power consumption :. A typical digital signal processing chip contains more than 4 lill transistors. Thus power dissipation is more in dsp systems compared to analog systems.
For small applications digital signal proces'sing systems are expensive' compared to analog systems. Comparison' between Digital and Anal99 Signal Processing. TableS-1 shows comparison between digital and analog signal processing. In a communication system, the word know its exact meaning. It varies with some dependent or independent variables.
Therefore we must. There are various types of signals. Every signal is having its own characteristic. The processing of signal mainly depends on the characteristics of that particular signal. So classification. Broadly the signals are classified as follows:. Continuous signal :. A signal of continuous amplitude or time is known as continuous -signal or analog signal. This signal- is having some value at every instant ijf time.
Exan1ples :. Some of the continuous signals are as shown in Fig. Fig, A Examples of continuous signals.
Digital signal processing
Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Barapate, J. Katre Digital Signal Processing. Second Revised Edition, Tech-Max.
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Digital Signal Processing by J.S. Katre (Tech Max)
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