On the hardscrabble, treeless highland plain that joins Peru with Bolivia, farmers have eked out an existence for thousands of years amid bitter winters and the harsh sun, at 4, metres above sea level and higher. Resembling an ornate garden maze from above, suqakollos — or waru-warus — are a patterned system of raised cropland and water-filled trenches. Alipio Canahua, an agronomist working with the Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO , says that the ancient agricultural system, which could date back 3, years, actually creates its own microclimate. A suqakollo can also be a small oasis in the scorching daytime sun, which yellows even the coarse highland grass, known as ichu — the main fodder for the alpacas and llamas herded by the local Aymara people. Canahua has been leading the resurgence of this ancient farming system with local communities, restoring old suqakollos and building new ones.
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On the hardscrabble, treeless highland plain that joins Peru with Bolivia, farmers have eked out an existence for thousands of years amid bitter winters and the harsh sun, at 4, metres above sea level and higher.
Resembling an ornate garden maze from above, suqakollos — or waru-warus — are a patterned system of raised cropland and water-filled trenches. Alipio Canahua, an agronomist working with the Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO , says that the ancient agricultural system, which could date back 3, years, actually creates its own microclimate. A suqakollo can also be a small oasis in the scorching daytime sun, which yellows even the coarse highland grass, known as ichu — the main fodder for the alpacas and llamas herded by the local Aymara people.
Canahua has been leading the resurgence of this ancient farming system with local communities, restoring old suqakollos and building new ones. Sonia Ticona, a local indigenous Aymara leader who has been working with Canahua, says that in her village, the women work harder than the men to dig the trenches which are filled with water. Now we are restarting it and bringing it up to date — men and women working together. Potatoes have been sown this season — next year it will be quinoa — in a carefully planned crop rotation, explains Canahua.
While the yields are smaller than cultivating in larger fields, beating the plummeting winter temperatures, which can reach C, can prevent devastating crop losses. Archaeologists say that people have lived on the Altiplano — on the shores of the highest navigable lake, Lake Titicaca — for some 8, years, and traces of the ancient canals still mark the high plain.
Roads and boundaries between communal lands, however, have limited the space available. Ancestral crops like quinoa, and its kiwicha and kaniwa varieties, could make this labour-intensive, complex farming system worthwhile; international demand for the superfoods has multiplied the price, bringing in extra income for these smallholder farmers.
Across large swaths of the Thar desert in western India, traditional techniques for harvesting the little amount of rain that falls has helped people survive the powerful effects of the sun for centuries. The most beautiful of these are step wells — known as baolis in Hindi — large, stone structures built to provide water for drinking and agriculture.
Baolis exist in all shapes and sizes and are essentially reservoirs built into the earth. Groundwater is pulled up from a circular well at the bottom and rainwater is collected from above. A set of steps — on one or more sides of the structure — lead down to the water level, which fluctuates depending on the amount of rain.
More recently, electric pumps have been installed in many baolis to help retrieve the water. Today, many baolis have fallen prey to rapid urbanisation and neglect.
In Delhi only around 15 survive but local groups are fighting to protect and preserve them. While mm of rain falls on Delhi every year, half of the city has been declared a dark zone — where the groundwater level has depleted so much that the rate of recharge is less than the rate of withdrawal — by the groundwater authority. In , parts of the baoli walls collapsed due to sewage water seeping into the structure and the local residents using it as a rubbish dump.
The pool was drained and the rubbish, garbage and sludge that had accumulated over the past years was removed to reach the foundation of the baoli some 80 feet below ground level. While the water in the baoli is still not potable, it can be used for cleaning and agriculture. Experts say the baoli model can be replicated anywhere in the world with similar climatic conditions and physiological features.
Contractor has been invited to Morocco where he is working on a project to build baolis and smaller wells, known as beris in Hindi. But large baolis need large catchment areas, and in Delhi space is an issue. While the majority of the physical structures of baolis are protected — some by being sited inside historic monuments — urban development in Delhi has had a greater impact on their water levels; storm drains divert rain away from baoli catchment areas.
Diwan Singh, an activist with non-profit Natural Heritage First, says that even though many baolis in Delhi are surrounded by buildings, the wells can still be recharged. Makueni County — just over miles south of Nairobi — has one of the most inhospitable environments in the country. The only food crops cultivated here are sorghum, cassava and pigeon peas — drought-tolerant crops.
With an average annual rainfall of just mm, meaningful agriculture is nearly impossible. Water access is a big problem. Women and girls in sub-Saharan Africa spend up to four hours a day fetching water, according to the One campaign. But things are changing for the better, thanks to an ancient water harvesting technique being used in the dry regions.
Sand dams, which were invented by the Romans in BC, have become an important source of water for domestic and agricultural needs. Sand dams are constructed by building a concrete barrier or wall across a seasonal river with a firm bedrock. As the river flows, sand in the water is deposited behind the wall. Over time, layers of sand build into a reservoir for water, which remains stored in the sand once the river level drops.
Evaporation is virtually impossible below a metre of sand — no matter how intense the sun — and the water is clean and safe for immediate drinking as the sand acts like a filter. Not only have the sand dams improved water security for local communities.
Villagers are also coming together to form self-help groups to construct the dams with assistance from the NGOs, and to initiate agro-based economic schemes. Using water from the sand dam built on the nearby River Thange, the group can now grow kale, tomatoes, beans and other crops. They sell whatever they harvest and pool the proceeds, which help families pay for school fees.
But the initiative is gaining momentum and expanding not only to other parts of the country, but to Tanzania, Chad, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and even to India. This is the story of a great morning in Cusco shopping for lunch things and snacks to take to Machu Picchu, buying new sneakers, a constipated dog, brass band, dancing girls, men in masks, dancing gorillas and a misheard description of the event.
So if this is Tuesday, it must be Belgium! It was good to go to the supermercado and just be normal. Somewhere I read that taking food to Machu Picchu was a good idea because you could then avoid having to go out and in through the turnstiles. Yes, Machu Picchu has turnstiles. Cusco supermarkets are wonderful: Aladdin's caves full of chica morada lollies, fried corn kernel snacks, kiwicha cookies, aguaymanto jam, and things we couldn't use like quinoa or amaranth flour, and boot polish which I could use.
Unusually, there was great mirth at the checkouts. The constipated dog had arrived. No one was concerned but barking in a supermarket did seem a little unusual.
He did seem to get bored and leave without too much encouragement, and was later seen, still straining on the footpath and continuing to amuse passers by while nail polish was sourced from the nearby pharmacy to patch a hole in my pack cover. Return to the hotel was interrupted by a procession.
You could feel it as much as anything. Three marching base drums will do that. After following the procession until they got tired and sat down to drink beer, an explanation was sought from the hotel desk. It was some celebration to do with Belgium. Alright, I admit that the pronunciation of virgin can sound a bit like Belgium, and sighting of a banner on the cathedral cleared up the matter as a procession for the Virgin Rosario.
However, nobody has been able to explain the gorillas. Me bolo, I 42 but say Second shot taken in the highlands as we drove from Puna to Cusco.
This area was not any more beautiful or scenic than any other part of Peru, its simply the first memory card I uploaded. So the first shots will be random snapshots as I try to find room on my swollen hard-drive for the plethora of shots from scenically stunning Peru.
Peru was not just full of beautiful and interesting people and scenery. Perhaps the biggest surprise was the food, which was both superb and cheap. Whether sampling unique delicacies like alpaca steaks, cerviche, or guinea pig cuy , or less exotic dishes based on quinoa, kiwicha or the 8, varieties of stunningly tasty potatoes, and wide variety of corn, the food was consistently really, really good.
A special mention goes to Baco in Cusco for its stunning flavors, and to ZigZag in Arequipa for its exquisite alpaca steaks. We have a Peruvian Restaurant here in Cincinnati which is sadly not terribly good, so my expectations were not particularly high. However, I was blown away by food that matched the scenery and the wonderfully friendly people.
Die Kiwicha wird seit einigen tausend Jahren in den Anden und Mittelamerika kultiviert. Die Art ist in Europa mindestens seit in Kultur. Amaranthus caudatus is a species of annual flowering plant.
It goes by common names such as love-lies-bleeding, love-lies-a'bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, velvet flower, foxtail amaranth, and quelite.
Many parts of the plants, including the leaves and seeds, are edible, and are frequently used as a source of food in India and South America — where it is the most important Andean species of Amaranthus, known as Kiwicha see also Andean ancient plants.
This species, as with many other of the Amaranths, are originally from the American tropics. The exact origin is unknown, as A. The red color of the inflorescences is due to a high content of betacyanins, like in the related species known as "Hopi Red Dye" amaranth. Ornamental garden varieties sold under the latter name are either Amaranthus cruentus or a hybrid between A.
In indigenous agriculture, Amaranthus cruentus is the Central American counterpart to South American Amaranthus caudatus. It can handle a variety of conditions, both humid and arid. It is easily grown from seed; plants can be started indoors in early spring and transplanted outdoors after the last frost. The purpose of this exhibition is to revalue Andean grains as national and world heritage, as well as highlighting their contribution to food security and the fight against hunger and poverty in the world.
It is also an acknowledgment to the Andean farmers, as custodians of the conservation of the different types of Andean grains and their sustainable cultivation. The history of each of these grains is accompanied by an exhibition of images and replicas of these products, as well as an interactive section in which kitchen lovers can place their favorite recipe made from these Andean grains.
Likewise, Mistura represents an opportunity for many producers to market their products in the capital for the first time. It's also one of the most expensive ones.
As I reached the staple foods I dicided to try some samples of all of them. Here is the first contender: Amaranth. The most authentic way to eat amaranth is probably to mix it with honey and turn it into "Allegia" candy bars. The Aztec were very fond of adding some human blood from sacrifices as well, but this might be a bit too authentic.
Although you can cook it like rice as well, the old Americans mostly popped it on a hot stone. It's pretty simple too, just put it in a hot pan and off it goes, like mini-popcorn. Tastes much like popcorn as well. The Q'ueros are a small Andean comunity at more than 4. Benito and his uncle were invited to Lima for a meeting of comunities, after the meeting I took them to the beach to see the ocean, it was fun as they had never seen the sea.
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Manual De Cultivo De Kiwicha
Our research on neglected and underutilized species is published in books, journal articles, conference proceedings and other document types. We also share our work in oral presentations and posters. You can access these documents on this page. The most recent 10 publications are displayed initially but we have nearly documents in the database, which you can access by navigating categories of interest using the bar below. Publication Year : Author : V. Polar; W. Rojas; M.
The genetic resources of Andean grain amaranths Amaranthus caudatus L. Contact PGRN-manuscripts cgiar. All rights reserved. Instrucciones para los autores.
La kiwicha y su cultivo