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Print Send Add Share. Early female voices in Ecuadorian The feminist journals: A source Reviewer Wershow, Irving R. Reviewer Renner, Richard A. Reviewer Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla. D lcsh Women authors, Ecuadorian lcsh Genre: bibliography marcgt non-fiction marcgt. Notes Abstract: Despite current efforts to analyze the role of women in Latin America, only minimal information is available about Ecuadorian women. Excluding traditional references to such vaunted national heroines as Manuela Saenz, Manuela Canizares, and Mariana de Jesijs, little is known about the principal concerns and aspirations of Ecuador's women.

Similarly, because literary critics rarely have offered more than a cursory mention of the works published by Ecuadorian women, there is a dearth of information on the extent to which female writers have participated in national letters.

The purpose of this dissertation, therefore, is to fill these voids by analyzing the essays and fiction Ecuadorian women have published to date. More specifically, attention is given to what women have said about their role in society, about male-female relationships in Ecuador, and about their chief aims, problems, and fears.

In short, this study is primarily concerned with two major goals: 1 to refute traditional claims that women have not written prose literature in Ecuador; and 2 to demonstrate that the major themes found in their works offer a penetrating view of the female's place in Ecuadorian society.

Regarding the first objective, after considering the authors and works analyzed, it is apparent critics have neglected many women writers who have turned to literature as a means of expressing themselves. Their numbers might be larger were it not for the fact that they have been "victimized," so to speak, by a body of literary criticism that overlooks their work and denies them artistic status.

The few writers who have overcome this prejudice and have ultimately been recognized in anthologies and literary histories i. Thus, in our study we have shouldered the burden of reexamining women's place in national letters, with the express purpose of demonstrating that a meritorious literary tradition exists among Ecuador's women writers.

The treatment of female images in Ecuadorian women's prose demonstrates that women have not been totally satisfied with their secondary role in national development.

Contrary to Benajmfn Carrion's belief that Ecuador is a "pueblo hi jo de mujer" i. Thus, Ecuador's women frequently have used prose literature to champion feminist issues, reject inequities, injustices and sources of repression. The writers' comments about women in Ecuador presented in this study only reflect the viewpoint of the urban middle-class female intellectual.

Up to the present, Indian women, the montuvias rural women from the coast , and marginal women from the city have yet to describe their own situation. Similarly lacking are studies on women journalists and poetesses; the image of women in male writers' works; a reevaluation of women's participation in history; sexual attitudes among women; and women in the labor force.

In short, because much work remains to be done in terms of investigating the attitudes and problems of the Ecuadorian female, it is hoped that this dissertation will underscore the voids in our knowledge and stimulate the continued redressing of traditional prejudices about Ecuadorian women through studies on their numerous and diverse contributions to society. Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.

Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves General Note: Vita. Statement of Responsibility: by Michael H. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes.

Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. PDF 7 MBs. I dedicate this dissertation to my mother and father. Ivan A. Schulman, for his valuable insight and guidance during the preparation of this dissertation; to Dr. Irving R. Wershow, for his continued support during my graduate program at the University of Florida; and to Dr. Richard R. Renner, for having served as a member of the supervisory committee.

In addition, a special note of thanks must be extended to the Organization of American States for having funded nine months of doctoral research in Ecuador December to September Finally, a special note of gratitude is extended to my wife, Toya, for her constant encouragement and understanding. Feminist Magazine Literature and the 19 30 's.

Women Writers: 5. Women Writers: to Present. Handelsman June, Chairman: Ivan A. Schulman Major Department: Romance Languages and Literatures Spanish Despite current efforts to analyze the role of women in Latin America, only minimal information is available about Ecuadorian women. Excluding traditional references to such vaunted national heroines as Manuela Saenz, Manuela Canizares. More specifically, attention is given to what women have said about their role in society, about male-female relationships in Ecuador, and about their chief aims.

Their numbers might be larger were it not for the fact that they have been "victimized," so to speak, by a body of literary criticism that over- looks their work and denies them artistic status. Contrary to Benajmin Carrion's belief that Ecuador is a "pueblo hijo de mujer" i. Up to the present, Indian women, the mon'ztlvias rural women from the coast , and marginal women from the city have yet to describe their own situation.

Consequently, the purpose of this dissertation is to fill this void, to study the Ecuadorian woman's role in society by means of a detailed analysis of the prose works essay and fiction that Ecuadorian women writers have published to date. Attention will be given to what the women have said about their own role in society, about male-female relationships in Ecuador, and about their chief concerns, aspirations, and fears.

In short, the following study of Ecuador's women writers will achieve two goals: 1 establish the extent of women's contribution to Ecuadorian letters; and 2 illustrate women's position in Ecuadorian society. With respect to the first objective, because few critics have been a.. Even such leading scholars of national letters as Benjamin Carrion, Isaac Barrera, Angel Rojas, and Edmundo Ribadeneira have done little more than acknowledge some names and titles in their general comments about Ecuadorian literature.

Furthermore, although critics occasionally have alluded to women's limited participation in national letters when explaining the absence of research on female writers, at no time has anyone attempted to analyze the complex reasons which account for this scarcity. In effect, due to the overall lack of interest in investigating women's place in literature, current knowledge about the female writers has been based on a series of suppositions which people through the years have considered conclusive.

Indeed female literary production goes Far beyond the critics' traditional, limited references to Marietta de Veintemilla and Blanca Martinez de Tinajero Regarding Ecuadorian women and their place in society, the female writers frequently have used prose literature as a platform for their major concerns and problems, offering the reader a clear idea of many of the realities that characterize women's lives in Ecuador. In short, the importance of literature when studying certain aspects of a society becomes evident upon reading Erich Koehler's assertion that "es possible partiendo de la literature explicar una sociedad, es decir, conocer su espfritu y los hechos que constituyen su.

John Stuart Mill has noted that "we may safely assert that the knowledge which men can acquire of women, even as they have been and are, without reference to what they might be, is wretchedly imperfect and superficial, and always will be so, until women themselves have told all that they have to tell. It should be added that this dissertation does not claim to include all names of women who have written prose in Ecuador, nor all the works published by the writers.

Nevertheless, the analysis and bibliography which follow are extensive enough to introduce future researchers to the most important prose material readily available in Ecuador, and moreover, to open the way to future studies on female writers, in general, and Ecuadorian women, in particular. La m'd? Critical perspectives on Ecuadorian women writers also are limited because the last important study on Ecuadorian literature was published in Barrera's literary history.

Women writers have been quite active during the contemporary period; nevertheless, their latest production has not been analyzed outside of several book reviews and prologues.

Erich Koehler. Roland Barthes, Henri Lefebvre. Barcelona: Ediciones Mart;nez Roca, S. John Stuart Mill. EL- rti.. York: Vin age Books, , pp. Manuela Saenz, the "Libertadora del Libertador," for example, is often cited to illustrate the active role women presumably played during the Independence period. Unfortunately, these historical references to Ecuadorian women usually create an idealized female stereotype that "obscures the actual social condition of women and induces them to seek consolation in myths rather than work for social change.

Curiously enough, however, whereas the gallery of Ecuadorian heroines seems to suggest women have enjoyed considerable prestige and status in society, the often-neglected group of female writers intimates that, for the most part, Ecuadorian women have been victims of long- standing prejudices and taboos.

Consequently, before analyzing the major themes found in the female writers' prose works, this chapter will con- trast the optimistic view common to the principal concepts and ideas published about Ecuadorian women, in general, with the pessimistic image that arises when considering the problems and injustices suffered by the writers.

As will be noted, the chasm that exists between these two diverse female models is closely related to the sharp contradictions Virginia Woolf referred to when comparing women in literature with women in daily life: "Some of the most inspired words, some of the most pro- found thoughts in literature fall from her lips; in real life she could hardly read, could scarcely spell, and was the property of her husband.

In fact, Carrion has written categorically that Ecuador's main contri- butions to history have been made by its heroines, and therefore, has described the country as a "pueblo hijo de mujer. They, along with the wondrous flora and fauna, the abundance of precious metals, and the mysterious primitive peoples, were part of the long-desired Utopia which Alfonso Reyes later called La it a T'', e.

Significantly, in the midst of the explorers' marvelous, magical and unreal accounts of America, some of the earliest references to Ecuador were primarily concerned with the Amazon women.

In this respect, Carrion claims: "Esas, las Amazonas de Orellana--el hombre que desde Quito march, guiado por la fabula tambi6n, en busca del rfo mar Esas son las genitrices de la patria.

Ellas el comienzo de nuestra levenda de pueblo con rafz en la tierra. Glorifying his supposed ancestors, Carrion writes: No. Estas mujeres guerreros, [sic] las amazonas, han sido combatidas por aquellos que, a tftulo de historiadores, hubieran querido que en los archives helenos quedara un.. According to historians, Huayna-Capac could not control the region north of Quito until he married the Shyri princess who, in turn, convinced her followers to accept the Inca's supreme authority.

La restauradora de la unidad del mundo. Ella, la india quitena, todo amor y sexo, es la verdadera madre, la autentica matriz. The subsequent civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa destroyed Inca unity and favored considerably Pizarro's conquest of the region.

Later national heroines of Ecuadorian history, appeared during the Independence period, and the most important figures were Manuela Saenz, the Marquesa de Solanda, and Manuela Canizares. As in the case of Paccha, love and passion were the key to these early eighteenth-century women's fame: Saenz captivated Bolivar, Solanda enchanted Sucre, and Canizares, a madame, supposedly plotted with revolutionaries when allowing them to conspire in secret rooms of her brothel. Generally speaking, during the revolutionary period there were no Ecuadorian military leaders comparable to Bolivar, Sucre, Paez, or San Martin.

Consequently, since Ecuador's chief heroes of the period Bolfvar and Sucre were Venezuelans. Carrion, among other national writers, attempts to fill the void by extolling women's participation in the struggle against Spain: "IJo tuvimos heroes con espada en las luchas por la libertad.

Tuvimos, si, heroinas con abanico y mirinaque, ojos asesinos y valor para dejarlo todo, para ir por sobre todo--en una sociedad hipocrita, tragahostias y cuentachismes.

Later, in a letter addressed to her legal spouse, she explained: "Se muv bien que no puedo unirme a el [Bolivar] por las leyes del honor, como tu llamas, pero, Lcrees que me siento menos honrada porque sea mi amante y no mi marido?

No vivo para los prejuicios de la sociedad, que 8 solo fueron inventados para que nos atormentemos el uno al otro. Moreover, in , a year in which Quito was beset by a series of earth- quakes and a mysterious epidemic, she is said to have saved the city from disaster when, during a Church service, she publicly offered her life for the well-being of Quito.

In conclusion, "Mariana de Jes6s puede ampliamente ser llamada patriota, porque ofrecio su vida por la patria, y paso en diario sacrificios implorando a Dios felicidad para ella.

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