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In the medieval tradition of Indian scholarship, it was assumed that both texts were written by the same person. Both the grammar and the poetic works had an enormous influence in their respective fields. The grammar in particular, takes a holistic view of language, countering the compositionality position of the Mimamsakas and others. The poetry constitute short verses, collected into three centuries of about a hundred poems each.
Each century deals with a different rasa or aesthetic mood; on the whole his poetic work has been very highly regarded both within the tradition and by modern scholarship. The name Bhartrihari is also sometimes associated with Bhartrihari traya Shataka, the legendary king of Ujjaini in the 1st century. The account of the Chinese traveller Yi-Jing indicates that Bhartrihari's grammar was known by CE, and that he may have been Buddhist, which the poet was not. Based on this, scholarly opinion had formerly attributed the grammar to a separate author of the same name from the 7th century CE.
Bhartrihari was long believed to have lived in the seventh century CE, but according to the testimony of the Chinese pilgrim Yijing [ A period of c. Yi-Jing's other claim, that Bhartrihari was a Buddhist, does not seem to hold; his philosophical position is widely held to be an offshoot of the Vyakaran or grammarian school, closely allied to the realism of the Naiyayikas and distinctly opposed to Buddhist positions like Dignaga , who are closer to phenomenalism.
The leading Sanskrit scholar Ingalls submitted that "I see no reason why he should not have written poems as well as grammar and metaphysics", like Dharmakirti , Shankaracharya , and many others. Bhartrihari's views on language build on that of earlier grammarians such as Patanjali , but were quite radical.
This distinction may be thought to be similar to that of the present notion of phoneme. Further, words are understood only in the context of the sentence whose meaning as a whole is known. His argument for this was based on language acquisition , e. The child observing this may now learn that the unit "horse" refers to the animal.
Unless the child knew the sentence meaning a priori , it would be difficult for him to infer the meaning of novel words. Later Mimamsakas like Kumarila Bhatta c. The Prabhakara school c. In a section of the chapter on Relation Bhartrhari discusses the liar paradox and identifies a hidden parameter which turns an unproblematic situation in daily life into a stubborn paradox.
In addition, Bhartrhari discusses here a paradox that has been called " Bhartrhari's paradox " by Hans and Radhika Herzberger. Bhartrihari's poetry is aphoristic , and comments on the social mores of the time. Unfortunately, the extant manuscript versions of these shatakas vary widely in the verses included.
Kosambi has identified a kernel of two hundred that are common to all the versions. A man of wealth is held to be high-born Wise scholarly and discerning Eloquent and even handsome — All virtues are accessories to gold! When applied to integers, the latter is known today as Berry paradox. Bhartrhari's interest lies not in strengthening this and other paradoxes by abstracting them from pragmatic context, but rather in exploring how a stubborn paradox may arise from unproblematic situations in daily communication.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the folk hero, see Bharthari king. For other uses, see Bharthari. Coward; Karl H. Potter; K. Kunjunni Raja, eds. Detailed discussion, see also notes on p. Bimal Krishna Matilal. A memorial volume in honour of pandit Sukhlalji Sanghvi. Series Dalsukh Malvania et al.
Niti Shatakam of Bhartrihari
Bhartrihari Niti and Vairagya Shataka
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