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Purification from de jure Filth is obtained by Ablution, Bath, or Tayammum when using water is unfeasible. Purification from de facto or real Filth is obtained by getting rid of the de facto Filth by using tangible agents of purification like clean water, pure soil, gravel, or by the process of animal-hide-treatment.
Absolute water is that which exists with its original attributes as no Filth has mixed with it nor has any other thing overwhelmed it. Absolute water includes: 1. Rain water 2. River water 3. Well water 4. Fountain water 5. Sea water 6. Water from melted snow, hail or ice Kinds of water and their rulings Water is classified into five types based on whether purification is obtained from it or not: 1.
Pure, purifying1, non-Avoidable water Absolute water is pure and Purification may be obtained from it. Pure, purifying, Avoidable water It is that water which has been licked by cat, hen, carnivorous bird or snake.
Purifying water Ablution and Bath are Undesirable with this kind of water if absolute water of the first type is present. But if absolute water is not present, then there is no undesirability in its use.
Pure, doubtfully purifying water It is pure but there is a doubt in its purifying capability. This is the water which has been licked by a donkey or mule. It is undoubtedly pure but there is a doubt whether Ablution and Bath with it will be valid or not. If no other water is available, then the person should perform Ablution with it and then do Tayammum.
He has the option to perform Ablution before Tayammum or Tayammum before Ablution. Pure, non-purifying water It is the Used-up water which is pure but not purifying, so Ablution or Bath with it will not be valid. Used-up Water: It is the water which has been used in Ablution or Bath for the purpose of getting rid of de jure Filth or for obtaining reward from Allah, like Ablution with the intention of getting reward by a person whose ablutional purity still exists.
Purifying water is one which can be used for Ablution and Bath. All purifying water is pure but not vice versa. However, if an Ablutionally impure person performs Ablution with water for cooling himself or for demonstrating the method of Ablution, then the water will become Used-up2 i.
Water becomes Used-up when it is applied and then gets separated from the body of Ablution- or Bath- performer. Filthy water It is the small-quantity, stagnant water in which de facto3 Filth has got mixed whether the attributes of the Filth is apparent in the water or not.
When the attributes of Filth becomes apparent, the water becomes impure whether it is large-quantity or small-quantity and whether it is flowing or stagnant. If water is in a cistern or pond so big that if water is shaken at one end, the water at the other end is not affected, then it is termed large-quantity water. How to identify large-quantity water? Water is considered large-quantity if its cistern or pond is ten by ten in area and it is so deep that if water is taken up with hand, the ground beneath is not laid bare.
Small-quantity water is that whose container is of lesser dimension. The ruling for Filthy water is that it is impure and no kind of Purification can be obtained with it.
Rather, when it is mixed with something else, that thing also becomes Filthy. Ablution with water that comes out of a plant or fruit is also not valid whether it comes out by its own without squeezing or it squeezes out due to external pressure. Similarly, water whose nature4 has transformed due to cooking, etc.
If the color, taste or odor of water changes due to stagnating for a long time, it remains pure and purifying. If such a thing mixes up with water from which water is not free most of the time and on most of the occasions like alga, fallen tree-leaves and fruits, etc.
If a fluid that has two distinguishing attributes5 only like milk — which has color and taste but no odor — mixes up with water and one of the attributes of milk becomes perceptible in the water-fluid solution, then it will be ruled that water is overwhelmed and so Ablution with it is not Permissible. If a fluid having three distinguishing attributes like vinegar mixes with water, then if two of the three attributes of the fluid become perceptible in the water solution, then only it will be ruled that the water has become overwhelmed and so Ablution with it will not be valid.
If a fluid with no distinguishing attribute — like Used-up water6 or rose-oil which has lost its odor — mixes up with water, then its overwhelmingness will depend upon its proportion by weight. So, if two kg of Used-up water mixes with one kg of pure water, Ablution with it will not be valid.
But if one kg of Used-up water mixes with two kg of pure water, Ablution with it will be valid. The rulings for leftover water vary according to the animal that has drunk from the vessel. Pure and purifying leftover water The leftover of a man is pure and purifying if there was no sign of Filth in his mouth when he drunk from the vessel. It does not matter whether the person is a Muslim or Disbeliever, or whether he was pure or impure with major de jure Filth7.
Similarly, leftover of horse is pure and Purification can be obtained with it without any problem. The leftover of an animal whose flesh is Permissible to eat is pure and purifying without any detestability; e. Pure and avoidably purifying leftover water The leftover of a cat with no trace of Filth in its mouth is pure but Ablution with it is Undesirable when Absolute water is present.
Similarly, leftover of a carnivorous bird like falcon and eagle is pure but performing Ablution with it is Undesirable. The same is the ruling for leftovers of animals which live in houses like mice. Pure but doubtfully purifying leftover Leftover of donkey and mule is undoubtedly pure but there is a doubt whether Ablution with it will be valid or not.
So if no other pure water is present, the person will perform Ablution with it and do Tayammum and then offer Salah.
Filthy leftover Leftover of pig is Filthy and Purification cannot be obtained using it. Similarly, the leftover of dog is Filthy and purification cannot be obtained from it. Leftover of a carnivorous quadruped like lion, leopard and wolf is also Filthy and purification cannot be obtained from it. If his leftover is Filthy, his sweat is also Filthy. When an inherently Filthy animal i. If a non-inherently Filthy animal whose leftover water is Filthy falls down into a well, throwing out the entire water of the well is Compulsory.
If a man with no trace of Filth on his body falls down into a well and comes out alive, the water will not become Filthy.
Similarly, if a donkey, mule, falcon or eagle with no trace of Filth on its body falls down into a well and comes out alive, the water will not become Filthy provided that its mouth did not touch the water. If an animal without flowing blood e. Similarly, the death of an animal like fish, frog and crab, which is born in and lives in water does not make the water Filthy. If a large animal like dog or goat, or a man dies in a well and is pulled out immediately afterwards before it swells up, the well-water will become Filthy and it will be Compulsory to pull out all the water of the well.
In all the cases wherein pulling out the entire water of the well is Compulsory but pulling out the whole is not feasible, it will be sufficient to pull out two hundred average-sized buckets of water.
If an animal like cat or hen8 dies in a well, then pulling out forty buckets of well-water is sufficient. If an animal like sparrow or rat dies in a well, pulling out twenty buckets of water will be enough. When the Compulsory quantity of water has been pulled out of the well, the well becomes purified as also the rope, bucket and the hands of the person s who pulled out the water.
A well does not become Filthy if dung of animals like horse, donkey, camel, goat, deer, cow, etc. In that case, the well-water becomes Filthy.
If a dead and swollen up animal body is discovered in a well and nobody knows when it fell9, it will be ruled that the well-water has been Filthy for three days and nights. So all Salahs offered with Ablution from this water will have to be repeated. If this water has been used in this period in Bathing and cloth-washing, then the persons will take a Bath once again and rewash those clothes with pure water. If a dead animal is found in a well before it swells up and it is not known when the animal actually fell, then it will be ruled that the well-water has been Filthy for one day and night, so the Salahs offered in this period will have to be repeated.
Whoever intends to relieve himself either from urine or excreta should observe the following etiquettes: 1. He should go far away from the eyes of the people till no one is able to view him nor hear the sound of what comes out of his body nor smell the odor.
He should select a soft and low ground for easing himself so that urine droplets may not fly back towards him. Before entering washroom he should recite:. EQ A person who intends to relieve himself outside his house in the open should recite this dua when he starts tucking up his garments and before his private parts are revealed.
Going to the washroom, he should first enter his left foot and coming out he should first put out his right foot. He should sit putting more weight on his left foot as this posture is more helpful in excretion. He should cover his head at the time of relieving himself and cleansing. He should not urinate in a hole in the ground as it is possible that there might be some reptile in the hole which would hurt him. He should not urinate nor relieve himself on road or in graveyard.
He should not urinate or relieve himself in a shadow11 wherein people usually sit. He should not urinate or relieve himself at a place where people gather for conversation. He should not urinate or relieve himself under a fruit-laden tree. It is Avoidable for a person engaged in relieving himself to talk without necessity. But if he sees a blind man walking towards a pit and fears that he might fall into the pit, it will be Compulsory for him to speak and guide the blind man.
It is Avoidable for him to recite the Quran or a remembrance formula while he is engaged in the act of relieving himself or cleansing his Filth.
Simple Fiqh translation Of Al-Fiqh Ul Muyassar
If Allah wants to do good to a person, He bestows upon him the Fiqh comprehension of the religion. It takes its simple Arabic style from the acclaimed Fiqh compilation Nurul Izah in line with the needs and capabilities of the elementary madrasah students. I was immensely pleased to know that Maulana Shamsul Islam Al Qasimi has rendered it into English to enable English-educated people to benefit from it directly. At present, English is an internationally prevalent language and a large number of Muslims and Neo-Muslims are desirous of learning Islam through it. In several countries all over the world, the work of rendering Islamic heritage into English is going on at a rapid pace. The book has used English alternatives along with the Arabic and Islamic special terms.
Al Fiqh Ul Muyassar
Scan to open and bookmark this site on your phone. Made with by Graphene Themes. Imam Abdur Rahman ibn Nasir as Saadi. Imam Abu Dawud. Imam Abu Hanifa.
Simple Fiqh: Translation of Al Fiqh ul Muyassar
Al Fiqh Ul Muyassar by Imam Abu Hanifa – ARABIC