An electrical wiring interconnect system EWIS is the wiring system and components such and bundle clamps, wire splices, etc. Ignition of flammable vapors in the fuel tank was the probable cause of that fatal accident, and the most likely source was a wiring failure that allowed a spark to enter the fuel tank. All people aboard the airplane were killed. Two years later, an MD—11 Swissair Flight airplane crashed into the Atlantic Ocean , killing all people aboard.
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The guidance provided in this document is directed to air carriers, air operators, and repair stations. It may also be used by type certificate holders and supplemental type certificate STC holders. The recommendations in this AC can be applied to any aircraft training program.
This material is neither mandatory nor regulatory in nature and does not constitute a regulation. It describes acceptable means, but not the only means, for demonstrating compliance with the applicable regulations. We will consider other methods of demonstrating compliance that an applicant may elect to present. While these guidelines are not mandatory, they are derived from extensive FAA and industry experience in determining compliance with the relevant regulations.
On the other hand, if we become aware of circumstances that convince us that following this AC would not result in compliance with the applicable regulations, we will not be bound by the terms of this AC, and we may require additional substantiation as a basis for finding compliance. This material does not change or create any additional regulatory requirements nor does it authorize changes in or permit deviations from existing regulatory requirements.
The NTSB specifically cited the need for improved training of personnel to ensure adequate recognition and repair of potentially unsafe wiring conditions. We endorse these best practices. Adoption of the recommendations in this AC will result in a training program that will improve the awareness and skill level of aviation personnel in electrical wiring interconnection systems production, modification, maintenance, inspection, and repair.
This AC promotes a policy of providing wiring training for all personnel who come into contact with aircraft electrical wiring interconnection systems as part of their job and tailors the training for each workgroup to their particular needs. To fully realize the objectives of this AC, air carriers, air operators, repair stations, type certificate holders, and STC holders will need to rethink their current approach to maintaining and modifying aircraft wiring and systems.
This may require more than simply updating maintenance manuals and work cards and enhancing training. Maintenance personnel need to be aware that aircraft electrical wiring interconnection systems should be maintained with the same level of attention and intensity as any other system in the aircraft.
They also need to recognize that visual inspection of wiring has inherent limitations. Small defects such as breached or cracked insulation, especially in small gage wire, may not always be apparent.
Therefore effective wiring maintenance combines visual inspection techniques with improved wiring maintenance practices and training.
Sections Section It is this guidance material and that of 14 CFR part 43 that we have traditionally used 2 3. The training syllabus and curriculum for these personnel, identified in paragraph 6 of this AC as Target Groups 3 through 8, are in Appendix B to this AC. Mechanics leaving drill shavings on wire bundles is one example of how this could occur.
The objective of this EWIS training program is to give operators or maintenance repair organizations a model for developing their own EWIS training program. This training can benefit personnel whether such training is required by regulation or developed and adopted voluntarily by an organization. It will help ensure that proper processes, procedures, methods, techniques, and practices are used when performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, inspection, alteration, repair, and cleaning of EWIS.
This program was developed for eight different target groups and may be used for initial and recurrent training. Depending on their duties, some personnel may fall into more than one target group and therefore would need to fulfill all objectives of each of their associated target groups.
Paragraph 6 of this AC provides details of each target group. This group would include, but not be limited to, aircraft cleaners, cargo loaders, fuelers, lavatory servicing personnel, deicing personnel, and push-back personnel. Initial Training—Initial training should be conducted for each designated work group. The initial training program content for Target Groups 1 and 2 is outlined in Appendix A. Initial training program content for Target Groups 3 through 8 is outlined in Appendix B.
Curriculum and lesson plans for each dedicated module identified in Appendices A and B are given in Appendix C. A list of definitions for terms used in the curriculum and lesson plans is included in Appendix D. Examples of assessment means or achievement criteria are written tests, oral tests, or demonstration of skills. Refresher Training—Refresher training should be conducted at least every two years.
It could consist of a review of previously covered material plus any new material or revisions to publications.
Hickey James J. Ballough John J. Safety practices X X 2. Tools, special tools, and equipment X 4. Required wiring checks using troubleshooting procedures and charts X 6. Measurement and troubleshooting using meters X 7. Chapter cross-reference index X X Important data and tables X X Wiring diagram manuals X X Human factors in inspection X X Zonal areas of inspection X X Airplane external contamination sources X X Airplane internal contamination sources X X A-1 7.
Other contamination sources X X Contamination protection planning X Protection during airplane maintenance and repair X Cleaning processes X E — WIRE Know or demonstrate correct identification of different wire types, their inspection criteria and damage tolerance, and repair and preventative maintenance procedures.
Wire identification, type and construction X X Insulation qualities and damage limits X X Inspection criteria and standards for wire and wire bundles X Wire bundle installation practices X X Typical damage and areas found airplane specific X X Maintenance and repair procedures X X Sleeving X X Unused wires-termination and storage X X General connector types and identification X X Cautions and protections X X Visual inspection procedures X X Typical damage found X X Circular connectors X Rectangular connectors X Terminal blocks-modular X
Electrical wiring interconnection system
AC 120-94 - Aircraft Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems Training Program